Events related to climate change and the increase in the occurrence of natural disasters, as well as the increasing incidence of new diseases, have all caused the prominence of regional security and crisis management around the world to rise. Three-dimensional printing, which has seen noteworthy developed in recent years, both in terms of print parameters, and the magnitude of the production potential, may prove helpful in this matter. Enormous opportunities have arisen which, if properly directed, can save human life and preserve health in crisis situations, when traditional supply chains could be disrupted or even prevented. The use of additive technologies, however, has its limitations and in order to be able to take full advantage of the opportunities they offer, a legitimate functional system should be created and embedded within proper structures to support crisis management. This paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of using 3D printers and the possibility of their implementation as part of the current crisis-response systems. The article proposes a model for incorporating additive technologies into the crisis-management system.
In this article, changes occurring in structural steel after exposure to fire are described and discussed. The steel structure before and after fire determines its susceptibility to brittle cracking. The individual phases of cracking are described and interpreted on the basis of a load-displacement graph, directly obtained from the Charpy impact test. The relationship between the intensity of individual fracture energies and the type and appearance of the sample fractures are demonstrated. The program of planned Charpy impact tests and expected hazards after the exposure to fire of selected steel grades are presented. Standard simplified load-displacement graphs are assigned to the steel transition curve. The course of various cracking mechanisms occurring in the case of brittle fractures and plastic fractures are discussed. The aim of this article is to evaluate the possibility of the assessment of structural steel after a fire based on results obtained during the Charpy impact test.
The city life cycle is an issue that can be considered from many perspectives. Klaassen’s period cycle is the basic model of city life: urbanisation– suburbanisation–deurbanisation–reurbanisation. In each of these periods, cities develop by, building and transforming their structures. This article presents various approaches to shaping new urban spaces using the city of Rzeszów as an example. In the city’s history, three periods are distinguished during which structures referred to as the ‘new town’ were created in the 16th and 20th centuries and continue to be created now. After analysing the site-forming processes, the most important features of new-town urban systems are compared.
The Pandemic is forcing everyone to become aware of the need for a change in the cultural and socio-economic paradigms of recent decades.
During the twentieth century, on the one hand, entire populations concentrated in urban areas with ever higher population densities, at the same time giving rise to the phenomenon of “urban sprawl” or “suburbanization”.
On the other hand, entire territories have been abandoned (the so-called “inner areas”).
Now, we can define territorial rebalancing strategies based precisely on the reactivation of “inner areas”. Strategies that, in the Post (post) COVID era will have to be not only resilient, but anti-fragile. And the key is precisely in the future of the smaller historical centres.
This article aims to review the strengths and weaknesses of small historic centres, outlining possible scenarios for their “smart” revitalization and for a true sustainable and inclusive development.